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The purpose of the carbon materials

Posted time:2017-03-30

Use of carbon materials
Carbon materials in addition to meet the needs of the metallurgy, chemical industry, also for the aerospace, nuclear industry, electronics, machinery and other departments to provide needed materials.
1, the conductive material
All kinds of alloy steel with electric arc furnace or -arc furnace smelting, ferroalloy, or production of calcium carbide, calcium carbide, yellow phosphorus, a powerful electric current passes through carbon electrode (or continuous self baking electrode, the electrode paste) or graphitized electrodes into electric arc furnace smelting area, the electrical energy is converted into heat energy, the temperature rise to about 2000 ℃, to meet the requirements of smelting or reaction. Sodium metal magnesium, aluminum, generally by molten salt electrolysis production, then electrolytic cell anode conductive materials are using graphitized electrodes or continuous self baking electrode (anode paste, sometimes using pre-baked anode). The temperature of the molten salt electrolysis is in commonly below 1000 ℃. Production of caustic soda (sodium hydroxide) and chlorine salt solution electrolytic cell anode conductive material, usually with a graphite anode. Production of silicon carbide (sic) using resistance furnace furnace head of conductive material, also used graphite electrode.
In addition to the above purposes, carbon and graphite products as the conductive material is widely used in motor manufacturing industry as the slip ring and brush, and the carbon used as a dry cell or producing carbon arc, arc anode in the mercury rectifier etc.
2, refractory
Due to high temperature and carbon product have good high temperature strength and corrosion resistance, so a lot of metallurgical furnace lining available carbon block masonry, such as furnace hearth and bottom of the blast furnace and furnace, ferroalloy furnace and calcium carbide furnace lining, the bottom of the aluminum electrolytic cell and lateral. Many precious metals and rare metals smelting crucible, such as melting quartz glass used in the graphite crucible, are made of graphitization billet machining.
The structure of 3, corrosion resistant material
After inorganic and organic resin resin impregnated graphite material, has good corrosion resistance, good thermal conductivity, low permeability, this impregnated graphite is also known as permeability of graphite. It is applied to make various kinds of heat exchanger, reaction tank, condensation, burning tower, absorption tower, cooler, heater, filter, pump and other equipment, widely used in petroleum refining, petrochemical, hydrometallurgy, acid and alkali production, synthetic fiber, paper and other industrial sectors, can save a lot of stainless steel and other metal materials.
4, wear and lubrication materials
Carbon materials, besides has the characteristics of high chemical stability and good lubrication performance. Under the condition of high speed, high temperature, high pressure, the lubricating oil is used to improve the wear resistance of sliding parts is often not possible. Graphite wear-resisting material can be - 200 ℃ to 2000 ℃ temperature and corrosive medium under high sliding speed (up to 100 m/s) work without the lubricating oil. As a result, many of the compressor and pump forhandling corrosive mediums widely used graphite material of piston ring, sealing ring and bearing. They don t need to add lubricant during operation. The wear-resisting material is made of ordinary carbon or graphite materials through organic resin impregnated or liquid metal material. Graphite emulsion is also many metal processing (wiredrawing, laguan, etc.) good lubricant.
5 , high temperature metallurgical and ultrapure materials production with the structure of the material
Such as the production of monocrystalline silicon in the crystal growth of crucible, zone refining containers, stents, clamp, induction heater, etc., are all with high purity graphite material processing. Used in the vacuum smelting in graphite heat insulation plate and base, high temperature resistance furnace furnace tube, rod, plate, grating and other components, is also made of graphite materials processing.
6, mold, molding material
Carbon materials of thermal expansion coefficient is small, and resistance to thermal shock resistance is good, so can be used as a glass mold and ferrous and non-ferrous metal and rare metal mold. Graphite mold casting, precise size, smooth surface, no processing can be used directly or can be used as long as a little processing, thus saving a large amount of metal. Production of cemented carbide, such as tungsten carbide powder metallurgy process, usually with graphite material processing molding and sintering with the boat.
7, atomic energy industry and military industrial materials
Graphite because good neutron slow performance, used in the atomic reactor as the reduction material at the earliest. Uranium - graphite reactor is more an atomic reactor. Atomic reactor with graphite materials must have high purity. In order to reduce the impurity content in the graphite, zhongtong into the halogen gas purification in the graphitization process. Some graphite through special processing (such as in the graphite surfaces into high temperature resistant material) and recrystallized graphite, pyrolytic graphite and has good stability at high temperatures and high strength weight ratio. So, they can be used in the manufacture of solid rocket nozzle, missile nose cone, space navigation equipment spare parts. 

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